Nehru Science Centre

Nehru Science Centre,(NSC) Mumbai is India’s largest interactive science center, located in Worli. The centre is named after India’s first Prime Minister, Jawaharlal Nehru. The centre started with the ‘Light and Sight’ exhibition in 1977 and then a Science Park was built in 1979. It was opened to public on November 11, 1985 by late Rajiv Gandhi at that time the Prime Minister of India.Nehru Science Centre, first conceived as a Science & Technology Museum in late sixties, took final shape as India’s largest interactive science centre in 1977 to match the world trends in such public institutions. The centre opened its first semi-permanent exhibition `Light & Sight’ in 1977 followed by the world’s first ever Science Park in 1979, during the International Year of the child. The full- fledged science centre was finally opened to public on November 11, 1985 by late Shri Rajiv Gandhi the then Prime Minister of India. Nehru Science Centre, the largest Science Centre in the country has a sprawling 8 acres (32,000 m2) of science park with varieties of plants, trees and shrubs. More than 50 hands-on and interactive science exhibits on energy,sound, kinematics, mechanics, transport, etc. are installed in the science park. The NSC building with its unique architecture houses several permanent science expositions on various theme.Nehru Science Centre is visited by over 600,000 people every year who experience and enjoy the basic principles and marvels of science & technology. Situated on Dr. E. Moses Road, Mumbai – 400018, in between Worli Naka and Mahalaxmi Railway Station and spread over 14 acres (57,000 m2) of land, the Centre provides a natural and free environment for students to learn, familiarize and spend creative holidays and for professionals in the field of science education to have a glimpse of innovations in science education. Close to 1,20,000 school children alone participate in the activities of the Centre.

Nehru Science Centre incorporates innovative ways to communicate science to enthuse, entertain, initiate, excite and bring the developments of science & technology to the doorstep of common people for prosperity, awareness, and improving the quality of life. The centre attempts to enhance public understanding of science and spread scientific literacy.

More than 50 hands-on and interactive science exhibits are based on various aspects of science and technology, and there is a collection of some historical artifacts of science and technology. The 3D Science Show is also organized at the centre.
NSC is famous for its Distinct shape

Existing galleries

Aerospace
Dynamic Earth
Evolution
Hall of Computing
Human & machine
Light & Sight
Our Technology Heritage
Pre-historic Animal Life
Reception
Science for Children
Sound & Hearing[2]

How to Reach

The Centre can be reached by public transport i.e. train, bus, taxi or private vehicles. It is situated on Dr. E. Moses Road between Mahalaxmi Rly. Station on the South and Worli Naka on the North at a distance of about 1 km from either end. The nearest bus stop is Jijamata Nagar. The nearest railway station – Mahalaxmi (Western Rly.), Byculla (Central Rly.); Bus Routes – 50, 80 (Ltd.), 91(Ltd.), 124, 154, 164, 165, 168, 172, 351.

The Science Centre is open to the public every day including Sundays and public holidays throughout the year except two: the next day after Holi and on the day of Diwali.

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Soon, guided tours at Byculla Zoo

If everything goes as per the Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation’s (BMC) makeover plan for the Byculla zoo, then soon, the 150-year-old zoo would be getting a new lease of life.

Thick glass fences would be added around enclosures, so that visitors
have an uninterrupted view of the animals in the Byculla zoo

It’s been a while since the zoo authorities and the civic body have been at the receiving end for their lackadaisical approach in maintaining the zoo and its flora and fauna.

The Rs 150 crore makeover plan is in the final stage of approval with the Central Zoo Authority (CZA).

Guided tours
According to Anil Anjankar, director of Byculla zoo, “Since the makeover is on the cards, we are planning to introduce guided tours for visitors, on an hourly basis.

We’ll be hiring experts zoologists and botanists once the renovation concludes. These experts can then explain the importance of having flora and fauna to the visitors.”

He further stated that currently, a botanist has been helping the zoo to maintain its flora and has been organising botanical tours for groups of interested students. Anjankar added that once the makeover was complete, the service would be extended to all the visitors.

“We are paying him (botanist) Rs 1,000 for conducting tours and seminars. These seminars are organised once a week, depending on their demand.”

The proposal
Commenting on the makeover, Anjankar said that once the proposal is approved by the CZA, the renovation of the zoo will be carried out in three phases and would be done by August 2014.

Explaining the Phase I, the director stated that it would include filling up existing empty enclosures and setting up eight new ones.

“Once the CZA approves the measurements for the enclosures and gives its nod, HKS Consultant will start working on the technical details of the master plan,” added Anjankar.

The zoo management is now eagerly awaiting the final blueprint and is likely to commence work in a month’s time. “There are a few minor changes and we are waiting for the final blueprint.

We are planning to install a glass fence for animal enclosures so that visitors can have a clear view of the animals.

Moreover, the glass that will be utilised for the purpose will be sturdy so that animals like hippos and elephants won’t be able to break it,” stated Anjankar.

Helping hand
The Save Rani Bagh Committee is already preparing informative booklets and are busy numbering enclosures and trees on the zoo’s premises. These booklets will have information on each enclosure and tree depending on its number.

Post-makeover attractions
The zoo will have a total of 340 animals and birds
Ten pairs of exotic Humboldt penguins, emus and zebras will be added
Indian species: hyena, jackal, wolf, wild dog, sloth bear, porcupine, mouse deer, gaur, sambar, swamp deer, Asiatic lion, Bengal tiger, leopard, jungle cat, common otter, palm civet cat
An interpretation centre, the heritage structures on the premises would be restored
Additional toilets, resting places, rain sheds, drinking fountain and car parking

Revamped proposal
Earlier, the CZA had turned down BMC’s Rs 480-crore makeover proposal on May 11, stating that it was impractical and that the civic body had overlooked the heritage committee’s objections. Following its rejection, the BMC reworked on the proposal (Rs 150-crore) in accordance with the CZA norms.

8% of people in Mumbai, Thane hit by COPD

In The Emperor of All Maladies : A Biography of Cancer, oncologist Siddhartha Mukherjee brought to the fore a disease that society and the medical world are still grappling with. But there is another disease that claims more lives than cancer; considered as dangerous as AIDS, its fatality rate is surpassed only by heart attacks, strokes and acute lung infections-Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD).

Described as a slow killer, COPD is fast emerging as an epidemic , affecting eight out of 100 people living in Mumbai and Thane district . The results of a city-based study show that the percentage of Mumbaikars and Thaneites suffering from COPD is much higher than the all-India figure of 4.1%. The culprit , say doctors, is smoking.

Researchers at the Indian Institute of Environmental Medicine (IIEM) put the urban and rural prevalence of COPD at 7-8 %.

The most common cause of COPD is smoking. “Around 90% of people who smoke risk the chance of developing COPD,” said IIEM director Dr Rohini Chowghule, a chest specialist who conducted the study on 500 men and 500 women above the age of 35 years.

Though the study reflected 2006 figures, city doctors say the incidence rate would have only increased in the last few years.

One reason, say doctors, for the higher prevalence of COPD in Mumbai is the massive population. “There is a bigger population in the city, especially of those who smoke-actively as well as passively. This is the reason more people suffer from respiratory problems,” said Dr Ashok Mahasur, a chest specialist with Hinduja Hospital. “Another problem is the environmental pollution in the city. Many Mumbaikars have occupational exposure to pollution and end up falling prey to COPD,” he said, adding that if repeated respiratory infections during childhood are not treated, they too can become COPD at a later age.

“For a long time, there are no visible effects of smoking. But over a period of time, the tubes of the air ways get inflamed. The person gets bronchitis, which is still reversible . If, however, the person continues to smoke, then the alveoli, which are tiny air sacs in the lungs, start getting damaged,” said Chowghule. There are about 300 million alveoli in two adult lungs and provide a surface area almost equal to the singles area of a tennis court. But with COPD, the elasticity of the alveoli is lost. The walls of the air sacs break, thus reducing the capacity and the surface area. “The air is trapped in these damaged alveoli. There is stale air in the lungs and one has to strain to breathe,” said Chowghule.

Biomass fuel is a health hazard

Another worrying aspect, say doctors, is the prevalence of COPD among women who don’t smoke. Studies show that women who have to use biomass fuel for cooking purposes are more prone to COPD. Dr Amita Athavale, head of the chest department at KEM Hospital, said: “It is not just a rural phenomenon. Even women in Mumbai slums and pavements use this technique for cooking purposes.” According to doctors, the morbidity is higher and gradual among women who use biomass fuel. “In the course of the disease, there comes a time when they cannot perform the most basic household chores and have to strain the abdominal and neck muscles to breathe. It is important that women are taught to maintain smokeless chulhas so that they don’t fall prey to COPD at a later age,” said Athavale.

WHAT IS COPD?

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or COPD is a chronic obstruction of the flow of air through the airways and out of the lungs. The obstruction is usually permanent and progressivethe disease gets worse over time

CAUSES

CIGARETTE SMOKING AND SECOND-HAND SMOKE

Smoking is responsible for 90% of COPD cases. When a COPD patient stops smoking, the decline in lung function slows to the same rate as a non-smoker

AIR POLLUTION

It can cause problems for people with a lung disease, but it is unclear whether outdoor air pollution contributes to the development of COPD. In the nonindustrialized world, the most common cause of COPD is indoor air pollution, usually due to indoor stoves used for cooking

OCCUPATIONAL POLLUTANTS

Some occupational pollutants such as cadmium and silica do increase the risk of COPD. People at risk include coal miners, construction, metal and cotton workers

SYMPTOMS

COPD symptoms usually slowly worsen over time. Over time, symptoms may become severe enough to see a doctor

Typically, after smoking 20 or more cigarettes a day for more than twenty years, patients with COPD develop a chronic cough, shortness of breath (dyspnoea), and frequent respiratory infections Chronic bronchitis and bronchiectasis symptomschronic cough and sputum production-are telling signs Periodic chest infections can cause fever, dyspnoea, coughing, production of purulent (cloudy and discoloured) sputum and wheezing

ADVANCED COPD SYMPTOMS

Patients may develop cyanosisbluish discoloration of the lips and nail beds-due to a lack of oxygen in blood They also may develop morning headaches due to the inability to remove carbon dioxide from the blood Some patients experience weight loss, primarily because of the additional energy that is required to breathe. Patients with COPD may cough up blood

DEADLIER THAN CANCER

Worldwide, one in 10 adults over the age of 40 may have COPD prevalence In India, the is 4.1% Worldwide, nearly 3 million people die from COPD every year

According to the World Health Organization, COPD is the fourth leading cause of death worldwide, surpassed only by heart attack, stroke, and acute lung infections. It kills more people than cancer, and as many people as AIDS

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Mumbai among worst city to live: Survey

A new survey of 140 cities has rated Vancouver as the best city to live, and Mumbai as one of the worst with a ranking of 116.

Sixth ranked Sydney and Perth and Adelaide with joint eighth position were among the top 10 cities.

“Australia, with a low population density and relatively low crime rates, continues to supply some of the world’s most liveable cities,” the Sydney Morning Herald quoted Economist Intelligence Unit survey editor Jon Copestake, as saying.


Mumbai

The survey showed the poor ranking debt-ridden eurozone countries. Greece’s capital Athens ranking dropped from 62nd to 67th.

The survey showed sliding liveability across the Middle East countries in the wake of civil unrest. The Libyan capital Tripoli ranked 135th in the survey.

Hong Kong was ranked 31st, San Francisco and Singapore stood 51st, London at 53rd and New York at 56th position.

Beijing and Shanghai stood at 72nd and 79th position respectively, and Jakarta at 119th.

According to the survey, the worst places to live were Port Moresby in Papua New Guinea, Bangladesh’s Dhaka and Zimbabwe’s Harare.

The EIU said the survey’s objective was to supply guidelines to human resources departments worldwide as to when they should grant hardship allowances as part of expatriate relocation packages to the cities.

“It has since evolved as a broad benchmarking tool used by city councils, organizations or corporate entities looking to test locations against one another,” the survey statement said.

Cities were gauged on political and social stability, crime rates and access to quality health care, diversity and standard of cultural events and the natural environment; education (school and university) and the standard of infrastructure, including public transport.

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