Chatrapati Shivaji International Airport

{Airport codes|BOM|VABB}}, formerly Sahar International Airport, is an airport in Mumbai (formerly Bombay), India.

The airport, spread over an operational area of 1450 acres (5.9 km²), is India’s biggest international and domestic aviation hub. It serves the Mumbai metropolitan area since the terminals are located in the suburbs of Santacruz and Andheri. The airport was formerly known as Sahar International Airport & Santacruz Domestic Airport. It was recently renamed after the 17th century Maratha Emperor, Chhatrapati Shivaji Raje Bhonsle, to Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport.The Royal Indian Air Force Santacruz was a defence airfield of the Royal Indian Air Force (RIAF) during World War 2 and was entrusted in the 1950s (after India gained independence from Britain) to the Public Works Department, and subsequently the Ministry of Civil Aviation of the Government of India. It was named after the suburb of Santacruz where the airfield was located. Santacruz Airport remained the name well into the 1980s until the new international terminal went into operation at nearby Andheri. Even today, the domestic terminals 1-A and 1-B are commonly known as Santacruz airport

Mumbai airport is the busiest in India and South Asia. Recently the Mumbai-Delhi route has been ranked by Official Airline Guide (OAG) as the seventh busiest domestic route in the world based on the number of flights per week. The airport is the primary international gateway to the subcontinent and served by 46 international airlines and is also the base for international and domestic operators Air India and Jet Airways. It also serves as a hub for others domestic operators Indian Airlines, Jet Lite, GoAir, Deccan, SpiceJet, IndiGo Airlines and Kingfisher Airlines. Peak international traffic occurs at night while peak domestic traffic is before 10:00. Nevertheless, at least 45% of traffic flows between 10:00 and 18:30 daily.

In the 11 months between April 2006-February 2007, Mumbai airport handled 180,000 landings and takeoffs and over 20 million passengers, with a total of 13.56 million domestic air passengers and 6.73 million international passengers. It registered a 21.28% growth in passenger traffic over the previous year 2005-06, when the figure was 17.6 million passengers.

Structure

The international terminal

The international terminal

The Domestic arrivals terminal

The Domestic arrivals terminal
Terminal 1B

Terminal 1B

The airport consists of the International Terminal (Terminal 2 aka Sahar) and the Domestic Terminal (Terminal 1 aka SantaCruz). These terminals use the same airside facilities but are physically separated on the landside, requiring a 10-15 minute drive between them. The Airport Authorities of India provide shuttle services between the domestic and international terminals for connecting passengers. Terminal 1 is further divided into Terminal 1-A, opened in April 1992, and serves Indian Airlines, its subsidiary Alliance Air, Kingfisher Airlines, and GoAir. The older Terminal 1-B serves Jet Airways, Jet Lite, SpiceJet, Deccan and other private domestic carriers. Terminal 2, designed by Aéroports de Paris and opened in January 1981, is now Terminal 2-A–the original complex consisting of parking bays 41-46, namely, gates 3 to 8, the first aerobridges ever installed in South Asia–which serves most airlines whereas Terminal 2-C, inaugurated in October 1999, is exclusively for Air India, Air-India Express and those carriers whose ground operations are handled by Air India. Terminal 2-B, which is not in use, functioned as an extension wing between September 1986 and October 1999 for Air India and handled airlines.

Mumbai airport has two cross runways designated 09/27 and 14/32. Runway 14/32, 2,925 meters (9,596 ft)[1], runs between terminals 1 and 2, while the main runway 09/27 is 3,445 meters (11,302 ft)[1] (previously designated as 3,489 meters (11,447 ft)) intersects it south of the terminal buildings. Instrument landing system (ILS) approaches are available on the 27 (CAT II) and 09, 14 and 32 ends (CAT I). ILS at 27 end starts at 3,700 feet (1,100 m) and is 10.5 nautical miles (19.4 kilometres) long with a glide slope path of 3.3 degrees. With regard to (truncated) use of both runways, only 11,303 feet (3,445 m) is designated usable at 09/27 and 9,596 feet (2,925 m) at 14/32, especially for landings. Runway 14 approach requires aircraft to backtrack and exit upon landing as the turning pad at 32 end is unusable. Due to maintenance runway 09/27 is unavailable for landing or takeoff between 0715-0915Z on Monday and Saturday, and between 0715-0845Z on Wednesday.A parallel taxiway has been installed on runway 14/32 for aircraft landing and taxing which saves time as well as runway occupancy.

From January 1, 2006, both runways were operated simultaneously for three hours in the morning from 0530 to 0830. On average, about 50 flights of smaller aircraft have taken off daily from 14/32 in this time period. Since the experiment was deemed successful it has recently been decided to carry out simultaneous use in the evenings too. It is not clear if this will be for two hours or three hours. A rate of 25 departures per hour is being targeted in the evening slot. The problems with utilising 14/32 are: (i) Mumbai’s controversial new control tower erected in 1996 and some 72 meters (236 ft) tall penetrates transitional obstacle limitation surfaces by over 50 meters (164 ft) for instrument approaches, and in excess of 40 meters (131 ft) for visuals. Approach minima at both 14 and 32 ends are higher (based on best approach aid) and are as follows: RW 14 (DA 580 feet (180 m)), RW 32 (MDA 1,440 feet (440 m)) compared to RW 09 (DA 270 feet (82 m)) or RW 27 (DA 230 feet (70 m)), meaning that there is a higher probability of missed approaches and diversions in inclement weather (ii) a hillock, Trombay Hill, lies 4.5 NM (8.3 km) away from the 32 end, an approach also questioned recently by security agencies because the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) nuclear complex at Trombay (Anushakti Nagar) lies within its flight path.

Now expansion of Domestic Terminal and the construction of the International Terminal of Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport has been awarded to L&T ECCD. The brand new International Terminal T2 is being designed by one of the largest Architectural-Engineering firm in the world, Skidmore, Owings and Merrill (SOM).

Upgrades

Artwork at Mumbai airport

Artwork at Mumbai airport

Arrivals

Arrivals

Upgraded Baggage Claim area at the International terminal

Upgraded Baggage Claim area at the International terminal

Mumbai International Airport Ltd (MIAL), a consortium of GVK Industries Ltd. (GVK) and Airports Company South Africa (ACSA), was appointed to carry out the modernization of Mumbai Airport in February 2006. MIAL improved areas of passenger convenience like kerbside, terminal entrances and improved cleanliness. Human resources initiatives were taken such as employee communication and training. Some of the changes that have taken place at CSIA over the last few months are:[3]

  • additional check-in counters
  • cleaner toilets
  • better housekeeping
  • improved signage
  • more F&B options
  • better curbside management
  • aesthetic changes
  • smoother traffic flow

 Master Plan

In October 2006, MIAL unveiled the masterplan[4] for CSIA. The master plan has been designed to expand and upgrade the infrastructure at CSIA to cater for 40 million passengers per year and one million metric tonnes of cargo per year by 2010. International and domestic terminals will be merged into one terminal building at the current international building and the current domestic terminal will be converted to a dedicated cargo terminal.

The implementation will be undertaken in two stages:

  • The Interim Phase is the implementation of several immediate measures. These are to be completed by 2008 and will include:
    • Refurbishment and construction at Terminal 2
    • Revamp of Terminal 1A to upgrade and expand facilities such as check-in counters and boarding bridges
    • Setting-up of temporary cargo facilities to add capacity
    • Upgrading of the airside runway facilities such as rapid exit taxiways to increase runway capacity to cater to traffic growth
    • Enhancing city-side facilities such as multi-level car parks
  • Phase One to be completed by 2010 includes:
    • Creation of a brand new terminal building (T2) at Sahar catering to both international and domestic passengers
    • Construction of a dedicated link from the Western Express Highway to T2 at Sahar
    • Enhancement of the airside facilities by shifting the Air Traffic Control tower and construction of a parallel taxiway
    • Development of infrastructure on the city-side
    • Building new cargo facilities
    • construction of Terminal 1C
Arrivals

Arrivals

Terminal 1A

Terminal 1A

Key facilities at the revamped CSIA:

Facilities Proposed Existing
Parking stands for aircraft 106 (67 in contact and 39 remote) 84 (18 in contact and 66 remote)
Boarding Bridges 51 18
Check-in counters 316 182
Car parking 12000 3600

New taxiways have been developed to reduce the runway occupancy time by aircraft after landing. MIAL is undertaking the installation of a centralised data system which will provide information about domestic as well as international flights to all display devices at both terminals instead of just one or the other as at present. There are plans to extend the scope of the system to the Air traffic control (ATC) and apron control areas, the airport website and even to leading hotel chains. A centralised call centre to provide flight details is also envisaged. While a parallel runway seems to have been ruled out, the ATC tower is now expected to be taken down and relocated to facilitate cross-runway operation.

Mumbai International Airport (MIAL) has launched a free wireless network, in association with Bharti Airtel, to provide wi-fi service throughout domestic and international terminals.[5] This means that passengers transiting through Mumbai’s airport terminals can access the internet for free.

Airlines and destinations

Operations and Statistics
Flight frequencies to the metros
By flight frequencies (weekly one-way)
1 Delhi 381
2 Bangalore 237
3 Chennai 168
4 Hyderabad 133
5 Kolkata 113

Terminal 1-A (Domestic)

  • Air India(Ahmedabad, Aurangabad, Bangalore, Bhopal, Bhubaneswar, Chandigarh, Chennai, Coimbatore, Delhi, Goa, Hyderabad, Indore, Jaipur, Jamnagar, Jodhpur, Kochi, Kolkata, Kozhikode, Madurai,Mangalore, Nagpur, Patna, Pune, Raipur, Ranchi, Srinagar, Thiruvananthapuram,Udaipur, Vadodara, Varanasi, Visakhapatnam)
  • Kingfisher Airlines (Ahmedabad, Bangalore, Bhuj, Bhopal, Chennai, Delhi, Goa,Guwahati, Pune Hubli, Hyderabad, Indore, Jaipur, Kochi, Kolkata, Mangalore, Nagpur, Srinagar, Varanasi]

Terminal 1-B (Domestic)

  • Jet Lite (Ahmedabad, Chennai, Delhi, Goa, Guwahati, Hyderabad, Jammu, Kolkata, Lucknow,tarukha Patna, Varanasi, visakhapatnam)
  • Deccan (Ahmedabad, Aurangabad, Bhavnagar, Chandigarh, Chennai, Coimbatore, Delhi, Goa, Hyderabad, Jamnagar, Kochi, Kolkata, Mangalore, Nagpur, Raipur, Rajkot, Thiruvananthapuram, Vadodara, visakhapatnam)
  • Jet Airways (Ahmedabad, Aurangabad, Bangalore, Bhavnagar, Bhuj, Chennai, Coimbatore, Delhi, Goa, Guwahati, Hyderabad, Imphal, Indore, Jaipur, Jodhpur, Kochi, Kolkata, Kozhikode, Mangalore, Nagpur, Pune, Raipur, Rajkot, Thiruvananthapuram,Udaipur, Vadodara)
  • IndiGo Airlines ( Agartala, Bangalore, Chennai, Guwhati, Goa, Hyderabad, Imphal, Jaipur, Kochi, Kolkata, New Delhi, Nagpur, Pune, Vadodara)
  • SpiceJet (Ahmedabad, Bangalore, Chennai, Coimbatore, Delhi, Goa, Hyderabad, Pune)
  • GoAir (Ahmedabad, Bangalore, Bhopal, Chennai, Coimbatore, Delhi, Goa, Indore, Hyderabad, Jaipur, Jammu, Kochi, Srinagar)

 Terminal 2-A (International)

Terminal 2-C (International)

Cargo

Fixed Base Operators (FBO)

There are several fixed base operators at the airport and they include:

  • Caterers: TAJ-SATS, Ambassador’s Sky Chef, Sky Gourmet, Oberoi Flight Services, Chef Air.
  • Fuelers: Indian Oil, Hindustan Petroleum, Bharat Petroleum.
  • Ground Handlers: Air India, Indian Airlines, GlobeGround India, Cambata Aviation, Air Works India.

5 Responses to “Chatrapati Shivaji International Airport”

  1. Amey Says:

    hi gud site

  2. Kashif Says:

    Some info like the operator and airlines operating from the terminal need to updated dude!!!

  3. Tamer Hosny Says:

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    Interesting post. I came across this blog by accident, but it was a good accident. I have now bookmarked your blog for future use. Best wishes. Tamer Hosny.

  4. Nikhiel Says:

    Bombay needs a new masterplan.

    The statistics for Bombay are appauling at the least. Here are few of them:

    -55% of the city’s population live in slums.
    -The cost of real estate is ridiculous given the fact that 300 MM people in India live below the poverty line.
    -The quality and capacity of the infrastructure is far from optimal.
    -Though certain forms of public transportation work reasonably efficiently, they are far from optimal – traveling on Bombay’s suburban train system is a super-human experience – sweat, heat, no place to stand or sit, people hanging out of trains and sitting on top of them.
    -80% of Bombay’s sewage flows into the ocean untreated – that’s roughly 1800 million litres of raw and untreated sewage. It brings to mind whether buy an expensive ocean facing apartment in Bombay is actually worth it? Also, it brings to mind whether one should eat fish caught of the coast of Bombay?
    -Large parts of Bombay have no sidewalks so people end up walking on the roads.
    -Traffic discipline is non-existent. Obtaining a driver’s license is a matter of paying a bribe and hence there is no controlled process of learning for new drivers.
    -Flooding in Bombay is almost a yearly event.

    Bombay is unliveable. Unless one is wealthy enough to pay atleast Rs.10,000 to 15,000 per square foot for an apartment, Bombay is a very tough place to live. The rich that in Bombay have seceeded from India – they do not use the public transportation (buses, suburban trains), educate their children in expensive private schools (do not use public schools), and are not dependent on the government and municipal authorities most things with a few exceptions such as using the police and roads. The rich living in their bubbles do not have to deal with getting clean water on a daily basis, commuting to work like a can of sardines on the suburban trains, having to deal with the floods since they live in expensive homes that insulated from the flooding.

    The middle class and the poor who comprise of the majority of Bombay’s population are the ones that bear the brunt for the lack of proper infrastructure, the over capacity of the suburban trains, the almost ridiculous prices of real estate, the lack of a proper mechanism to deal with flooding, the lack of property sanitation such sewage and gargbage disposal systems, the lack of proper traffic management systems, etc.

    The wealthly are thriving, but one only has to view the way the middle class and the poor live to realize that Bombay is crumbling – the right way to describe Bombay is “decay”. Bombay is on a decline – it is decaying. It is probably amongst the worst places to live in India if one is in the middle class or poor.

    How do we fix Bombay? For starters, FIX THE MASTERPLAN.

    SOLUTION – Go vertical.
    -Manageable blocks of three to five acres in Bombay have to grouped together and rebuilt.
    -In order to incentivise the redevelopment, the FSIs must increase. It is preposterous that Bombay has an FSI of 1.0 or 1.33 given that the population of the city is closing on 20 MM and will be the second most populous city in the world by 2020.
    -In order to avoid complications of utilizing the FSI for any particular 3 or 5 acre block, the entire block must be redeveloped at once in order to utilize its FSI.
    -To manage the redevelopment properly, these blocks must have no height limits (must go vertical) and must have large set-backs. These set-backs will enabe the City of Bombay to lay urgently needed new and large sewage lines, new public transportation lines such as metros, sidewalks, etc.
    -The 3 to 5 acre blocks, with the additional FSI must have part of the their total development potential allocated to public amenities such as either low-income housing, libraries, multi-level parking facilities, schools, markets, sewage treatment plants, sidewalks, etc.
    -In order to deal with flooding, all new development in low-lying areas must be built atleast 1 to 2 meters above sea level. Over time, all roads, public utilties will also be built at 1 or 2 meters above sea level which deal Bombay’s flooding problems.
    -The proposed solution substantially increases density in Bombay but does so vertically. It increases open spaces by increased set-backs enabling Bombay to deal with its sewage, public transporation and infrastructure problems. Bombay will essentially become a lot like Manhattan where most people, irrespective of income level, use its higly dense public transportation to commute while having almost every possible public amenity in a 3-10 minute horizontal or vertical distance.

    Please note that Bangalore and Chennai have new masterplans. The free FSI (without TDR, etc) are in the range of 2.5 to 3.75 depending upon the size of the road that the property abuts. Given its existing population and taking into consideration its future population, FSIs in Bombay must be in the 4.0 to 6.0 range depending on whether the 3 to 5 acre blocks abut large roads, or are a part of a financial district or residential district, etc.

    Maybe the proposed solution above is not the most optimal, but one must keep in mind that irrespective of whether one agrees with the proposed solution above, Bombay needs a solution to fix its problems with infrastructure, sewage, cost of real estate, low-income housing, flooding and urban sprawl. If not, Bombay risks DECAYING into a very expesnive, low-density, sprawling city like Mexico city or Los Angeles. As it is, it takes 2 hours to get from Mulund to Nariman point or from Bandra to Navi Mumbai, just image what will happen to Bombay in 2020. People will have to commute large distances in narrow roads in over-capacity disfunctional public transporation while increasing pollution, traffic, etc. Quality of life will be miserable – far worse than what it is now.

    Fix Bombay – let’s start the discussion now!!

  5. hardik soni Says:

    i have read an article i came to know that how airport
    works


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